Places In Need: the Changing Geography of Poverty
Scott W. Allard
New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2017
Clutching our health cards and anti-nausea medication we Canadians look south at a noisily declining Trumpistan. Where, we wonder, just as the hurricanes seem set to pressure wash a lot of bad suburban development off of the sunbelt like so much graffiti from a school wall, is the empire going? What is the underlying state of daily existence there?
Places In Need is easily one of the tools to pick up when you are ready to construct an understanding of American socio-economic and spatial reality. What a job that will be, too. Poverty has been having its way with American communities of every type for decades.
This is nowhere more the case than in the suburbs, older inner ones and the younger sprawl zones alike. It has taken time to understand the transition the suburbs have gone through from exemplars of progress and prosperity into something much different. There’s little excuse now for the persistence of magic thinking about suburban economics.
Scott W. Allard is well established in his role documenting the relationship between being poor and where you are in America. In this latest book he marshals statistical analysis and direct observation. The result is a work of gravity with a not inconsiderable moral centre that inevitably asks, ”what is to be done?”
It will become even harder to look away from America in the coming decades as it grapples with inequality and social division. The first chapters in Places In Need describe suburban poverty and really leave no doubt we are not in a fake news zone here.
Los Angeles, Washington D.C. and Chicago are the focal metro areas of the book. Dozens of US communities are mentioned. Suburban poverty tracks to many places and some of the phenomena from these places are evident in Canada. Early passages on Chicago in particular can be applied to the Greater Toronto Area and Vancouver with little modification.
Chapter six of Places In Need runs the suburban paradigm against social programs designed to combat poverty. The author mounts a defence of these programs and asks that they be adapted, improved.
Poverty has doubled in American suburbs since 1990 (page 99). It is quite racialized as well with striking depth and concentration. All that extra space out there means support is hard to get to. Automotive expenses push hard against personal budgets supported by low wage employment. Public officials in suburban areas are seen failing to acknowledge the extent or event he existence at all of poverty in their jurisdictions. Maps and census data as well as the author’s interview work back up the description. that still seems unexpected to many, i.e. that great social difficulty in America is not confined to rural areas or inner cities.
At this blog we are getting impatient with descriptions. We’d like to see more about solutions though Allard does justice to what we are going to need to rethink the changed geography of poverty and how to respond. Pentagon spending and fossil fuel subsidies weren’t mentioned. Nor did we see anything much about a universal basic income, regulatory approaches to real estate development, infrastructure spending (especially on public transit), immigration reform, minimum wage legislation or support for education.
These things comprise social democracy and that is, in our opinion, the way you resist poverty and elevate the nature of a place best. Americans need to understand this to get out of their suburban poverty and Canadians to keep from going any deeper into it.
Basic Income: and How We Can Make It Happen
Guy Standing, 2017
Penguin Random House UK
$18.99 CAN paperback
Chapter four of this treatise on the social policy mechanism of universal basic income is the sweetest. There lies the magic of it all. We know poverty is expensive. A properly executed basic income would cut the cost of poverty and in so doing liberate a good portion of the fiscal resources needed to pay for itself. By no means is this the only way to afford a social dividend for all citizens as chapter seven attests. And afford it we must: this world is changing.
Guy Standing has been an intellectual point man for basic income on a global stage for many years now. He gives us the rationale and the ‘how to’ in his newest book. In the age of President 45, Boris Johnson, Rob Ford, Martin Skreli and other ineffective, uncaring and unhinged elite leaders Professor Standing has the contrasting voice of a grown adult. He has taken on the work of comprehending and advocating something in detail. At times things are technical, plodding even. But to do any difficult thing, as an individual academic or as a society, makes the demand for seriousness. It can also involve reward and rates respect. So it is with this book.
Other parts of this manual refer to the expected benefits of basic income and clarify it from other approaches to social welfare including historical ones. Somewhat new to our consideration of basic income was a potential contribution to environmental protection. More familiar are sections of the book describing the improvement in the quality of economic relationships and personal well being associated with a fully realized and well-executed basic income.
An important chapter is number six. Entitled The Standard Objections, it is designed to empower supporters of basic income. Enthusiasm on the part of those already converted is not going to be the determinant of whether or not we get the goodies. Not in an era of still lethal neoliberalism. Other voters, taxpayers, citizens, policy makers will have to be won over. A piece of work.
Chapter twelve displays its merits in this direction. Professor Standing tells us that ‘…the primary block to implementation of a basic income system is political, not economic or philosophical.’ Absolutely, this is true. We also must understand that as never before there is an opportunity, a window, for basic income. This last chapter is the one we will be reading over again as soon as possible. This is where we go from lively possibility to reality via public pressure. Here, anti-basic income emotionalism about worker dropout and a costly, unrealistic or even fully immoral ”something for nothing” pipe dream is addressed.
We do recommend this book. How could we not, really?
Frontier City. Toronto on the Verge of Greatness
Shawn Micallef, 2016
Signal $29.95 hard cover
Frontier City is about political events in Toronto mid decade and its author’s mission to understand his massive city.
By political events, of course we mean Rob Ford and his train wreck of a mayoralty.
Micallef is a writer, academic and walker. He’s a believer in seeing for himself. Starting with a Ford Nation barbecue (where lots of people were apparently perfectly nice!) he then goes off into the Los Angeles-scaled sprawl from where Ford drew so much of his resentful strength. It took a couple of years of this direct experience, getting around to the far flung wards of Toronto and walking them in the company of twelve political underdogs from the 2014 election, to get the job done. A worthy effort, indeed. If you want the real thing as to how political and social reality work together in the super-sprawl of the GTA nowadays you won’t do better than Frontier CIty.
Of course, this blog would like life to be simpler than Micalleff’s findings. We admit our emotions would be more satisfied by a deeper hatred of Big Rich Rob and his whack job performance as ‘mayor’. Frontier City is why we have (and need) public intellectuals. Bloggers can do only so much of the heavy lifting. Micallef sorts through a huge number of things within the realms of history, planning, economics to create a picture of where Toronto is at.
The picture is disturbing and tough to balance. After decades of looking to the future many of us can be forgiven for wondering why the present is so crap.
Consider the 3-billion dollar single-stop subway for Scarborough. That’s just one self-inflicted thing driving us crazy and showing us our faults as we try to realize our potential. Things ought to be so good here that electing a fucked up slob like Rob Ford ought to have been the last thing on anybody’s mind. That guy cancelled Transit City at the cost of $65m dollars. And his thing, apparently, was saving money? We really may be on the edge of a dark age and a vast nobody-to-blame-but-ourselves wastage.
Public transit issues appear again and again in Frontier City. All the really cheerful things that suburban-poverty.com trades in are found, too, from bed bugs to tower blocks. Anyone looking into the recent history of Canada’s biggest community will find this book a worthy read. I would have liked an index, maybe a further reading list as well and a map. These handy things don’t cost much and they up the value and relevance of hardcover books – objects that typically now cost several hours pay at minimum wage.
Even more, I’d have liked at least one chapter on solutions going forward. A more direct consideration of neoliberalism, the grand grinding ideology of our inequitable times might have helped as well. The passage about infrastructure and storytelling was great, powerful and could be a book someone ought to write.
Frontier CIty isn’t quite angry enough for us but we really liked this one and think you will, too.
Subdivided. City Building In An Age of Hyper-Diversity
Jay Pitter & John Lorinc, editors
2016. Coach House Books, Toronto
279 pages. $20.95 CAN
This collection of essays was much tougher reading than we expected. After nearly six years blogging about social difficulty in the suburbs we don’t expect to be unnerved by our topic. Subdivided unnerved us.
The good old days of multiculturalism, in which eastern and southern Europeans (and maybe a few other groups), found Toronto adjusting to, and eventually welcoming, them are long gone. In its place, we now see an ever bigger and richer Toronto home to newcomers in a living arrangement of hyper-diversity. This infinitely more complex Toronto is by turns depressing, ugly, unjust and unequal despite recurrent commentary about its peacefulness, high socio-cultural potential and general awesomeness.
Subdivided delivers unto us many a less-than-comfortable truth. There’s too many people here in isolated lives centred on a combination of shit jobs and lacklustre housing. Reading Subdivided made us feel like Toronto’s diversity is the stuff of an Adam Curtis documentary, another nightmarish expression of the global economic machine and its operating system, neoliberalism.
Toughness of presentation is what makes this collection of essays so amazing, …so real. It’s hard to think of any other such wellspring of direct, sustained observation of what it is really like to live here. A chapter on Brampton, for example, brings forth a wave of nausea faster than a jar of expired mayonnaise. ‘Browntown’ is next door to suburban-poverty.com’s backyard, we can attest to the truth of what is said about Brampton. Same for another entry on Mississauga, which is literally our backyard. You’d almost wonder why Canada bothers attracting new residents to its Sprawlvilles. Except perhaps as a cynical ploy to increase domestic markets and the tax base and to fulfill some corporate/ideological role in the global economy.
What to do? Good transit, a strong social safety net, higher wages, police reform, and affordable housing would help us toward a healthy, cross-connected society according to the essays in Subdivided. None of these things will be achieved quickly or cheaply, though.
We better get busy before something really awful comes of the present lame and indifferent regime of city building in greater Toronto. Stress is not good for the indivdual or the community. Stress and reaction brought us Rob Ford, the scale model mock up of Donald Trump. Who knows what the stresses of race and class we are leaving in place will inflict on us? We aren’t Milwaukee yet but how much longer will we sleepwalk into this?
We suggest future editions of Subdivided include a stamped, pre-addressed thank you note readers can mail to the one percent.
Buy Subdivided for your unnerved community affairs shelf.
Under the Affluence: Shaming the Poor, Praising the Rich and Sacrificing the Future of America by Tim Wise
City Lights Books Open Media Series
San Francisco, CA
Writing about poverty isn’t the easiest task. We know from our own modest efforts around here that the topic can leave you feeling wound up and put down at the same time. Scale that to the level of social difficulty in the United States right now and you get an idea of the challenge before Tim Wise when he set out to produce Under the Affluence.
What this book unpacks is a layered and ridiculously well entrenched set of social conditions. A damaging racialization of US poverty is one of several really nasty things emanating from a set of mainstream social values that serve to uphold a very troubling level of inequality described and analyzed in detail. Much of the book is about the beat down job done on the behaviour of poor Americans and the adoration bestowed on the winners in the world’s largest economy for their behaviour.
Yes, the so-called one percent and their privileges appear early and often in Under the Affluence. So does the so-called culture of poverty which has given so much mileage to right-wing economics from the late seventies right through to the crash of 2008. It is nothing less than crazy, the levels of righteousness, resentment and sheer magic thinking that accompany that new class of super elites shaping our neighbour’s life. Wise looks for the reality and documents his positions like a scholar. Wise’s book is a lucid and commendable piece of work on the topic of social conditions and social attitudes. It’s powerful, as good a work as any reader in this area could wish for or humble blogger like ourselves hope to emulate.
Like we say when we find quality of thought and effort in a piece of writing on poverty and social difficulty: buy this book!
Have you been thinking that a post-Rob Ford Toronto is ready for sane voices in dialogue on the difficult issues of the day? Voices for reform?
We certainly have been. That made our discovery of The New Urban Agenda: The Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area such a nice thing we knew we had to share it. Bill Freeman is looking to construct a reasonable vision of a well-managed city moving forward with democratic, humane, reasonable responses to popular needs. Freeman is a sociologist with a long record of publishing on urban and other issues. The voice of a calm and rational adult considering complex socio-economic and socio-political issues of place without resort to a crack pipe, and from a bicycle or bus rather than a Cadillac Escalade, ought to be the preferred manner of discussion. So much is at stake for Toronto in an unbalanced world that the failure to be grown up about our city is to ask for disaster.
For obvious reasons, suburban-poverty.com went ahead to the second chapter, devoted to inequality. Chapter seven came next, the one dealing with Toronto’s affordability, or rather its big-and-increasing lack thereof. The GTHA cannot continue to let things slide on either file. The author fully recognizes suburban poverty as one of the GTHA’s issues, distinguishing between the older inner suburbs and the sprawling outer suburbs. Transit, politics, the environment, and the planning process make up the rest of the book’s content. Freeman mixes solutions and positive examples into his descriptions of problematic situations. All of it is well handled.
Freeman obviously cares. He made his way to the company of a series of experts for insight when writing the book. More in the way of maps and infographics would have been nice. These things lend themselves so well to the topics at hand, even if they add to the cost of the book, that they are really obligatory. The jacket on this book, with its map that chops off part of Hamilton is kinda ugly, giving zero encouragement to bookstore browsers to think there might be a topic of enormous material importance between its covers.
Millions are directly affected by the problems and potentialities described in The New Urban Agenda. After the twisted and depressing Ford years with their lies, anger and general sickness there is a big need for Freeman’s brand of brainy yet warmhearted good sense. Professionals, elected officials, journalists and interested citizens as well as teachers and students in this broad area can journey into this book and find many things of interest. Hopefully that will happen to good effect for Canada’s biggest urban area.
As we say when we like one: “buy this book.”
Hand to Mouth: Living in Bootstrap America
Putnam, New York: 2014
“I took my damn teeth out on YouTube.”
Working and being poor in Linda Tirado’s world is not pretty. Unless you consider stress and bullshit pretty, that is. Pay is crap. Hours are brutal. Personal decision-making gets goofed up by layers of expediency. Self-esteem heads south. And that’s just at your first job, the one you go to before your evening job that you fit in after taking classes, raising kids, fighting the welfare bureaucracy and maybe relating to someone.
A Canadian probably wants to read this f-word-laced firecracker of a book about American life with a couple of things in mind. First, that lots of people live this way here. We are a little luckier than Americans in a number of ways but there is more reason for caution than indifference. Second, have some imagination for what living like Ms. Tirado would be like without a public health-care system. Hand to Mouth wasn’t written as a favour to the upper half of this continent, that is simply a nice extra benefit of Ms. Tirado’s effort to share what it means to be among the working poor in post-2008 America. Her book serves as a warning to wise Canadians they best guard their blessings.
North Americans either side of the border retain a set of unfortunate generalizations about the nature of employment and prosperity. Much of Tirado’s pain comes from this philosophy impeding the understanding of what it means to work and remain poor. Sure, academics study poverty, bloggers blog about it and journalists immerse themselves in it for a stretch and report back. Barbara Ehrenreich wrote the introduction to Hand to Mouth which stands strongly beside that writer’s own direct experience of working class life.
Tirado’s essay is relentless, adhering to a singular and difficult reality shared by millions. Luckily, it’s funny, too. Anyone who tells you there is no comedy in poverty is a liar. What choice do the poor have but to use everything they can to survive including the ability to see a desperate humour in life? The wryness and dry wit of Hand to Mouth is one of its strongest features, remarked on almost universally by readers.
Constant making do in endless shit jobs with multiple chains of nasty events all around show Tirado and her people are resourceful, they are trying hard. Not once in this powerful book does a union come anywhere near. Management? Forget it. They are just as likely to grab your ass or make some stupid demand as the public is half the time. Even toilet breaks are policed Gestapo-style in American working life.
Yup, the workers are pretty much on their own in Hand to Mouth. Headache after headache reels by. The migraines associated with cars came on as soon as suburban-poverty.com began reading. Readers know the “getting around” file is a big one for us. That’s because when a gassed-up motor vehicle with good tires and insurance is available it’s an important tool for the working poor. Anything goes wrong, however, like a bad dental injury at the hands of an uninsured drunk driver, or there’s a costly repair to keep a shitbox moving, and that useful tool becomes a millstone, a part of the disaster.
And yet, the working poor are almost totally dependant on cars to stitch together jobs and other obligations. Again and again in this book automobile-inflicted pain and stress is never far. Cars soak up pay in these unpredictable, obligatory ways that almost seem purposely designed to cement in place the margin of difficulty in low income lives.
Hand to Mouth began first as an extended comment on gawker.com to an item on the Huffington Post. In her comment, Tirado tried to share a reality-based explanation for some of the imponderables of poverty. She was pushing back at the shallow philosophy of so many which is based on judging the character of the poor. She admits the poor can act in self-defeating ways. In exchange for this honesty and self-criticism she asks only that the enormous energy extracted from the working poor by basic survival be recognized as the debilitating factor, not character. On the part of the better off it seems to require major effort to blame something other than the defective character of the poor for the shortcomings of an increasingly dysfunctional system. Tirado is telling us we are, well, fucking up on that one.
The Huffington Post published the comment as a stand-alone essay after the hits started to climb vertically. From that, Hand-to-Mouth was born. We think this says something great about the truthfulness and the value of the book. Some further references might have been nice at the end, just to cross reference and further place the reality. We hope to hear from Linda Tirado about specific solutions to poverty in her future work.
We read this one straight through, almost in one sitting. Powerful testimony delivered with humour. What we say when we like a book is “buy this book!” We don’t have any higher praise.
Hand to Mouth review – Linda Tirado’s howl of protest about plight of the poor. Poverty means bad jobs, bad credit and bad housing – but even worse is the assumption you aren’t trying hard enough, as Tirado’s angry, coruscating memoir proves theguardian.com
Brunch is a problem. Sorry, but it’s true. When you are done with Shawn Micallef’s hundred-page manifesto on that meal you may still like to eat it but will hopefully see that plate in a little wider a frame. Grease, dairy products, carbs and caffeine – sometimes with alcohol – served up in a renovated storefront with exposed brick is not just a meal but an expression of cultural programming.
Micalleff first knew brunch as a once-practical expression of a pretty reasonable Canadian prosperity. Now an intellectual labourer in Toronto, he grew up in Windsor, Ontario when it was a serious place of industry, a car building town. Apparently, brunch has evolved into a component of a less satisfying, weirder, more complicated and much less certain global economy. In short, brunch is dangerously delusional.
Given a bit of focus, brunch becomes an enormously instructive object in regard to where we are at socio-economically. Brunch is eaten the world over in gentrified, design-ey environments. Think mason jars for vases on little tables. Brunch would seem to be something well off people, a leisure class or at least a middle class, would eat to express their sheer joy. Not quite. Brunch is eaten by an increasingly precarious pseudo middle class.
Brunch is an ersatz token of aspiration, not a marker of reality, according to Micalleff. This is most intensively true for members of the so-called creative class. A class that often finds itself deep in debt, precariously employed and by way of income and other verifiable measures can be considered a good bit worse off than its parents.
Brunch is a compensation. Micalleff warns us not to fall for its appearances. Whatever we think we are getting in terms of atmosphere as we tuck into our eggs benny is a poor substitute for the substantive material gains organized labour, and the overseers thereof, realized after the Second World War. The job descriptions may have been simpler in Windsor in the sixties and seventies but they were attached to real prosperity. Today’s university-educated digital workers? Well, maybe not so much.
Creative class toilers, battered by the cost of urban housing and student loans, can barely afford their overpriced brunches. Thanks to digital technology they also appear to have less free time available to burn lining up for elaborate meals, but they do anyway. Brunchers seem brutally unaware of their predicament. Where spare time and public consumption once signified wealth brunch now seems to say, “I’m a loser and don’t even know it.”
The Trouble With Brunch could be misunderstood as a not very nice attack on people expressing consumer choice in an open market. Suburban-poverty.com’s editorial team, unfortunately, felt some of this pain. Having all lived in Parkdale in the 1990s we were at Toronto’s brunch Ground Zero. We just can’t let go, even twenty years later, of our warm memories: internet dates, friendship shared and carbs ingested. On hungover Sundays in the winter in particular brunch helped make up for our crap jobs and low wages, made us feel better (than we now know we were!).
Alas, we’re only human. When Easy first opened, years before it went to shit, we were there. We remember the Mockingbird, long gone, and Mitzy’s Sister, now called The Sister. And The Swan, oh The Swan. If only we’d known the meaning of the self-esteem disaster we were participating in, we’d have probably stayed in our apartment and eaten Captain Crunch or fled back to the sprawl that much earlier. Brunch is the new crystal meth.
Still, we cannot deny Micalleff is onto something very important. Brunch speaks to the character of Canadian society. While reading The Trouble With Brunch we kept thinking of the statistics-laden battleship of Thomas Piketty’s which has been such a best seller: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. The latter takes a different path to the same place: inequality and social difficulty. There’s a lot to be said for both works but we’ll give Micalleff extra points for accessibility and for putting much of himself before readers. His book is well written, lively. Certainly both books contain tough findings and they deserve to be read.
This blog places inequality alongside climate change as the most important two issues of this era. We’d like to have seen some content about oppression-by-commodity and brunch. All the fruit, vegetables, coffee, cocoa, spices and such going into breakfast for class confused Canadians is produced in the global south. Workers there have a lot more to worry about than lining up on Sundays at an overpriced urban eatery. What of all that?
It’s certainly a little frightening to ask where will the brunching class be in twenty-five years. We’ll have to put our forks down for a bit. At least long enough to read this important and welcome book. You’ll have to do a little work on yourself during and after the reading of The Trouble With Brunch, but you’ll be better off for it.
Brunch is dead, long live brunch.
See also: (299) The Housing Monster [Book review]
image: courtesy of author
If poverty in the USA is a machine then we now have the requisite manual for understanding how that machine works. And what a devilish device American poverty is in 2013: one in six Americans is below established poverty lines.
The American Way of Poverty: How the Other Half Still Lives witnesses the catastrophe in its first part. To read it is to follow a visceral route through the deindustrialized zones, crapped out suburbs, food pantries, homeless shelters, trailer parks and other depressing sights of poor America. Wages are shit, benefits few. Government programs are weak. Morale and health is stalling out for millions.
Sasha Abramsky’s newest book on hard times America grew from an ongoing project called Voices of Poverty. That was a gathering up of mini biographies of social difficulty intended as a counterweight to conservative narratives of poor people as responsible for their own misery and unworthy of meaningful public help. Starting with lived experience like this makes great sense when trying to understand the complexity and stubbornness of deprivation. Part two is about policy responses to this reality. Reportage attached to intellectual analysis makes The American Way of Poverty powerful and should help it be attractive to many types of readers.
Suburban poverty is not named as a specific ill. It needn’t be since it is simply a part of the furniture of the book. Underwater mortgages and pitifully low wages abound here.
What to do? Abramsky says Americans need a better social compact. While acknowledging the difficulty of the political moment in America he calls for a“fairness agenda.” His smart, hopeful ticket of repair tools includes:
- better measurements for describing poverty
- pension reform
- a major funding mechanism for higher education
- public works and regional development especially for high-unemployment areas
- excess profit taxes particularly on energy and financial industries
- estate and consumption tax increases
- higher income taxes on the wealthiest Americans
- more progressive tax policies for middle/low income earners
- reform and innovation in government service delivery – including 211 systems & cross platform benefit applications
- reductions in defence spending
- a changed approach to drug addiction & mental health care
- criminal justice system reform – especially sentencing reform
- reduced rates of incarceration
- Medicaid, SNAP, TANF reform – especially to access requirements
A mighty agenda this is, one requiring grass roots action and concerted federal effort. Many of the programs suggested will have high start up costs and require support from tax revenue. It’s fascinating to read what Abramsky has pulled together. Common sense shines out of his book all the time easing the dark aspects of the subject.
Sadly, many good ideas have to be accompanied by passages describing how they can be spun, for lack of a better word, to make them more appealling in a polarized environment that includes deeply internalized neoconservative and neoliberal values. Poverty in twenty-first century America cannot just be approached with a view to its elimination by the best possible technical means. The possibility of a technocratic approach modelled on the 1960s War on Poverty or the space program is not possible in America right now. Abramsky has to belabour himself early on in three ways because of the condition the national psychology is in. First, just to establish that America’s poverty is real, large in scale and worthy of everybody’s attention. Secondly, that it is a scandal not a tragedy. And thirdly, that there are multiple incentives for carefully applying well thought out correctives to poverty that will benefit all of American society.
Readers might have expected more comparisons to Canada along the way. Cultural expectations in both countries are still comparable for many people. Touchy Americans usually respond with contempt or disinterest to comparisons between the United States and say Sweden or Iceland, no matter the content of the comparison. Canada may have been a more useful object of comparison for the author. Canadians can also still be thankful that their poverty is modified by publically funded health care – something Americans have yet to fully get around to and which Abramsky advocates.
North of the border this book makes for alarming reading. Is this Canada’s future? Maybe our ailing neighbour will surprise us and the world. The country that was spending $5,000 a second at the height of the Iraq war might yet lift up its poor and discover it likes doing so along the way. What an example to the world that would be. In the meantime America’s poor can be thankful someone is out there recording their words and drawing together the best ideas on the topic of what is to be done.
Read this book.
The author is featured in this Democracy Now! segment: